Atomicity & Countability in Linguistically-Informed Instruction: Acquisition of L2-English Noun Types


Contents

Appendix A: Test Items for Elicited-Sentence Imitation Task

Appendix B: Test Items for Acceptability Judgment Task

Appendix C: Linguistically-Informed Instruction Materials

Appendix D: Traditional Instruction Materials


Appendix A: Test Items for Elicited Sentence Imitation Task

Practice Items

  • This is a practice sentence.
  • I like to go shopping on the weekends.
  • Spaniards goes to the dinner very late.
  • Vegetables are good for your health.
  • Many of this sentences are about food.

T0: Pre-Test Items

Countable Nouns in Definite-Plural Context

  • Everyone likes the boys that wear hats.
  • You can buy the doors you like at IKEA.
  • Last year the books were very expensive.

Countable Nouns in Definite-Singular Context

  • I like the boy with curly brown hair.
  • It is dangerous if the door is left open.
  • They said the book should be cheaper now.

Countable Nouns in Indefinite Context

  • Everyone likes a boy as their first child.
  • Everyone needs a door to their house.
  • Americans have a book that tells the truth.

Countable Nouns in Zero-Plural Context

  • People see ∅ boys at the beach every day.
  • You can get ∅ doors from the store.
  • Everyone needs ∅ books to do their homework.

Countable Nouns in Zero-Singular Context

  • The Americans think ∅ boy is the best.
  • People have ∅ door in their house.
  • Last year ∅ book was more expensive.

Flexible Nouns in Definite-Plural Context

  • Americans got the chocolates from England.
  • People should use the stones from the store to make paths.
  • Kids like the strings that are on their blankets.

Flexible Nouns in Definite-Singular Context

  • Many people like the chocolate from Mexico.
  • In Europe, the stone on the street is beautiful.
  • There is always the string that needs to be removed.

Flexible Nouns in Indefinite Context

  • It is good to have a chocolate for your soul.
  • Many people have a stone that is special to them.
  • Some shirts have a string that needs cut.

Flexible Nouns in Zero-Plural Context

  • Young people eat ∅ chocolates very frequently.
  • A garden always needs ∅ stones to complete it.
  • People should use ∅ strings to make things.

Flexible Nouns in Zero-Singular Context

  • Every cook uses ∅ chocolate for dessert.
  • Last year, ∅ stone was as popular as sand.
  • It is silly that ∅ string is not used often.

Uncountable-Object Nouns in Definite-Plural Context

  • Spaniards get the furnitures for their houses from IKEA.
  • The postman does not deliver the mails every day.
  • In Iowa City, the traffics make people late.

Uncountable-Object Nouns in Definite-Singular Context

  • IKEA sells the furniture for your house at a good price.
  • They said the mail does not come on Sundays.
  • Most people do not like the traffic on the weekends.

Uncountable-Object Nouns in Indefinite Context

  • Americans do not have a furniture in their houses.
  • In America, a mail takes three weeks to arrive.
  • Europe does not have a traffic like America.

Uncountable-Object Nouns in Zero-Plural Context

  • They used to make ∅ furnitures from trees.
  • People send ∅ mails every day in Germany.
  • Everyone hates ∅ traffics on Friday nights.

Uncountable-Object Nouns in Zero-Singular Context

  • Most people buy ∅ furniture from IKEA.
  • It is unusual to get ∅ mail on holidays.
  • There is always ∅ traffic after a football game.

Uncountable-Substance Nouns in Definite-Plural Context

  • People buy the salts at a special store.
  • Everyone buys the toothpastes at the store.
  • Children do not like the mustards from McDonald’s.

Uncountable-Substance Nouns in Definite-Singular Context

  • Many people like the salt from Poland.
  • In England, the toothpaste is a different color.
  • Heinz makes the mustard that is most popular.

Uncountable-Substance Nouns in Indefinite Context

  • There is a salt that is from a popular company.
  • Young people have a toothpaste that is very different.
  • There should be a mustard on every sandwich.

Uncountable-Substance Nouns in Zero-Plural Context

  • Americans put ∅ salts on all of their food.
  • Kids should use ∅ toothpastes morning and night.
  • Children say ∅ mustards make their food taste bad.

Uncountable-Substance Nouns in Zero-Singular Context

  • Some food has ∅ salt and it tastes bad.
  • Germans like ∅ toothpaste that has a minty flavor.
  • It is difficult to pick ∅ mustard that is tasty.

T1: Immediate Post-Test Items

Countable Nouns in Definite-Plural Context

  • People say the dogs at the animal shelter are nice.
  • IKEA sells the windows that open all the way.
  • The city planted the trees in the park for a good reason.

Countable Nouns in Definite-Singular Context

  • In American, the dog is a common pet.
  • In a house, the window that faces south gest sunlight.
  • When the tree blocks my view, I get upset.

Countable Nouns in Indefinite Context

  • In China, a dog is a holy animal.
  • There is a window in this room.
  • In Russia, there is a tree that has different leaves.

Countable Nouns in Zero-Plural Context

  • People say ∅ dogs are not very nice.
  • People buy ∅ windows at the store.
  • It’s important that ∅ trees are planted often.

Countable Nouns in Zero-Singular Context

  • It is dangerous if ∅ dog is not trained properly.
  • Everyone should have ∅ window in their room.
  • Sometimes ∅ tree is too big for the yard.

Flexible Nouns in Definite-Plural Context

  • In Spain, the cakes for birthdays are made differently.
  • Sometimes the rocks in my garden are very sharp.
  • You should put the papers that you need in a folder.

Flexible Nouns in Definite-Singular Context

  • I think the cake for his birthday should be frosted.
  • People put the rock on the ground to make a path.
  • I have the paper that you need for class.

Flexible Nouns in Indefinite Context

  • In Mexico, a cake is for very special events.
  • Each state has a rock that they are famous for.
  • The university has a paper that is very important.

Flexible Nouns in Zero-Plural Context

  • A good cook makes ∅ cakes for birthdays.
  • In Barcelona, there are ∅ rocks on all the beaches.
  • Many people use ∅ papers to write on.

Flexible Nouns in Zero-Singular Context

  • Many restaurants serve ∅ cake for parties.
  • Arizona produces ∅ rock for the country.
  • You can buy ∅ paper at the store.

Uncountable-Object Nouns in Definite-Plural Context

  • Airlines don’t treat the luggages very well.
  • Teachers give the homeworks for Reading class for the weekend.
  • Sometimes the jewelries at the store are expensive.

Uncountable-Object Nouns in Definite-Singular Context

  • It can be difficult to carry the luggage in the airport.
  • I have to turn-in the homework for Grammar when class starts.
  • I got the jewelry from my grandmother.

Uncountable-Object Nouns in Indefinite Context

  • Some people have a luggage that is a different color.
  • Today I have a homework for Grammar class that I need to do.
  • In China, there is a jewelry that is cheap.

Uncountable-Object Nouns in Zero-Plural Context

  • Many people have ∅ luggages that are black.
  • Most of the time ∅ homeworks are due on Monday.
  • Some people have ∅ jewelries that are old.

Uncountable-Object Nouns in Zero-Singular Context

  • I always check ∅ luggage at the airport.
  • Most teachers don’t give ∅ homework on Friday.
  • Most people wear ∅ jewelry to look nice.

Uncountable-Substance Nouns in Definite-Plural Context

  • Most people use the garlics to add flavor.
  • Yesterday, the dirts were scattered in the yard.
  • People keep the ketchups from the store in the fridge.

Uncountable-Substance Nouns in Definite-Singular Context

  • I put the garlic in the pantry.
  • People use the dirt in their gardens.
  • People put the ketchup from the store on the table.

Uncountable-Substance Nouns in Indefinite Context

  • Mexicans add a garlic to their tacos.
  • Some people have a dirt for their flowers.
  • Americans have a ketchup with everything.

Uncountable-Substance Nouns in Zero-Plural Context

  • Americans don’t like ∅ garlics on everything.
  • Sometimes ∅ dirts can be very messy.
  • Chinese people don’t like ∅ ketchups with fries.

Uncountable-Substance Nouns in Zero-Singular Context

  • In Italy, they use ∅ garlic for seasoning.
  • There is usually ∅ dirt on the floor.
  • Most people have ∅ ketchup with their fries.

T2: Delayed Post-Test Items

Countable Nouns in Definite-Plural Context

  • Sometimes the girls from your school cause problems.
  • People should adopt the cats from the shelter.
  • At school, the computers in the lab are used often.

Countable Nouns in Definite-Singular Context

  • I like the girl who is on the Today Show.
  • I like the cat that is at the animal shelter.
  • It is not good for the computer on my desk to be left on.

Countable Nouns in Indefinite Context

  • Parents with a girl spend more money.
  • Americans always have a cat in their house.
  • Everyone should have a computer for their work.

Countable Nouns in Zero-Plural Context

  • They say ∅ girls misbehave often.
  • They say ∅ cats are not very friendly.
  • At the store, ∅ computers are very expensive.

Countable Nouns in Zero-Singular Context

  • In the park, ∅ girl doesn’t get dirty.
  • Spaniards have ∅ cat instead of a dog.
  • Most people cannot afford ∅ computer in college.

Flexible Nouns in Definite-Plural Context

  • We should give the hamburgers that finish first to the kids.
  • People should put the glasses on the table.
  • I have the hairs that I collected from the patients.

Flexible Nouns in Definite-Singular Context

  • In America, the hamburger is a classic food.
  • Most people clean the glass on the door every day.
  • You should put the hair in the bag.

Flexible Nouns in Indefinite Context

  • Most Americans eat a hamburger every day.
  • In Spain, there is a glass that is very expensive.
  • It is gross to find a hair in your food.

Flexible Nouns in Zero-Plural Context

  • Eating ∅ hamburgers is not healthy.
  • They say that ∅ glasses can help you see.
  • There are ∅ hairs on the table.

Flexible Nouns in Zero-Singular Context

  • It is not a good idea to eat ∅ hamburger daily.
  • It is never good to break ∅ glass on the ground.
  • Babies are not born with ∅ hair very often.

Uncountable-Object Nouns in Definite-Plural Context

  • People should eat the fruits every day.
  • People put the monies in the bank.
  • In America, the clothings that are donated are dirty.

Uncountable-Object Nouns in Definite-Singular Context

  • It is good to have the fruit from your garden.
  • You should put the money that you got in the bank.
  • Sometimes the clothing needs to be cleaned.

Uncountable-Object Nouns in Indefinite Context

  • People eat a fruit in the morning.
  • Most people have a money at their house.
  • People have a clothing in their closet.

Uncountable-Object Nouns in Zero-Plural Context

  • Most people like ∅ fruits from the store.
  • Everyone should donate ∅ monies to charity.
  • Most people have ∅ clothings in their closet.

Uncountable-Object Nouns in Zero-Singular Context

  • Americans eat ∅ fruit with every meal.
  • People should save ∅ money for college.
  • It is too expensive to buy ∅ clothing often.

Uncountable-Substance Nouns in Definite-Plural Context

  • Some people eat the rices from China for breakfast.
  • People put the cinnamons in their ice cream.
  • People put the ices in the freezer.

Uncountable-Substance Nouns in Definite-Singular Context

  • Most people use the rice from China to cook.
  • I usually keep the cinnamon in the cabinet.
  • It is common to buy the ice for parties at the store.

Uncountable-Substance Nouns in Indefinite Context

  • In China, a rice is served with dinner.
  • Kids like a cinnamon in their milk.
  • Spaniards don’t like an ice in their coffee.

Uncountable-Substance Nouns in Zero-Plural Context

  • Most people eat ∅ rices in the afternoon.
  • Some people like ∅ cinnamons in cookies.
  • In China, they don’t put ∅ ices in their drinks.

Uncountable-Substance Nouns in Zero-Singular Context

  • It is common to have ∅ rice with chicken.
  • Other people don’t like ∅ cinnamon in their cookies.
  • In America, people put ∅ ice in their water.

Appendix B: Test Items for Acceptability Judgment Task

T0: Pre-Test

Practice Tokens

  • This is a practice sentence that uses good grammar.
  • This is another practice sentence but no grammar is not the good kind.
  • She always does not do her homework on time.
  • I like to think that we might could buy some things for the house.
  • They go to the grocery store on Fridays.

T0: Pre-Test Items

Countable Nouns in Definite-Plural Context

  1. The boys looked at their mom with those sad eyes.
  2. Do you know where the doors for the project are?
  3. The books on my desk are for studying.

Countable Nouns in Definite-Singular Context

  • The boy would go out of his way to walk home safely.
  • I could see the door from the table.
  • The book is entertaining and I recommend you read it!

Countable Nouns in Indefinite Context

  • There is a boy sitting on the ground with his hands on his head.
  • Every three steps there was a door and I could not find my way around.
  • I have to buy a book for my new class that starts tomorrow.

Countable Nouns in Zero-Plural Context

  • ∅ Boys may be influenced by their fathers.
  • There were ∅ doors on all sides of the building.
  • ∅ Books come in all different shapes and sizes.

Countable Nouns in Zero-Singular Context

  • There was ∅ boy on the ground.
  • ∅ Door was in the middle of the room because the building had caught on fire.
  • When I arrived in the room, ∅ book was all over the desk.

Flexible Nouns in Definite-Plural Context

  • The chocolates from Switzerland are for us.
  • We have the stones for the project, but I think we need more.
  • They have the strings on the table over there.

Flexible Nouns in Definite-Singular Context

  • We need the chocolate to finish baking the cake.
  • The stone is ready to be used.
  • The string is in the cabinet.

Flexible Nouns in Indefinite Context

  • They want a chocolate.
  • I have a stone for him.
  • She has a string for you to hang up the picture.

Flexible Nouns in Zero-Plural Context

  • She bought ∅ chocolates for everyone in the office.
  • There are ∅ stones in the garden, so pick the one you like best.
  • Do you have ∅ strings for the project?

Flexible Nouns in Zero-Singular Context

  • I have ∅ chocolate for you since it is your birthday.
  • Do you have ∅ stone for the path?
  • Cats can be entertained for hours by playing with ∅ string.

Uncountable-Object Nouns in Definite-Plural Context

  • Do you think the furnitures belong to them?
  • I am so angry because the postman does not sort the mails properly.
  • The traffics on Main Street caused him to arrive late.

Uncountable-Object Nouns in Definite-Singular Context

  • They have the furniture in the garage.
  • Last week the postman delivered the mail on Sunday.
  • Today, the traffic in the city center was thinner than usual.

Uncountable-Object Nouns in Indefinite Context

  • We have a furniture in that room.
  • I need to go to the Post Office to send a mail to my mother.
  • People turn when they see there is a traffic.

Uncountable-Object Nouns in Zero-Plural Context

  • I could not understand why ∅ furnitures were spread all over the room.
  • While on vacation, the Post Office did not deliver any ∅ mails.
  • ∅ Traffics in this city cause people to be late to work.

Uncountable-Object Nouns in Zero-Singular Context

  • Would you believe me if I told you that I have ∅ furniture older than you?
  • Did the postman bring you ∅ mail yesterday?
  • There is ∅ traffic in Iowa City every time there is a football game.

Uncountable-Substance Nouns in Definite-Plural Context

  • You can dissolve the salts in the water.
  • The toothpastes contain some mint.
  • Have you seen the mustards we got at the store?

Uncountable-Substance Nouns in Definite-Singular Context

  • The salt in the ocean burns our eyes.
  • We would bring the toothpaste to the kids.
  • The mustard that I bought is in the refrigerator.

Uncountable-Substance Nouns in Indefinite Context

  • Although they think he is crazy, he puts a salt on everything.
  • There is a toothpaste on the table but I am not sure if it is good.
  • She asked for a mustard for her French fries.

Uncountable-Substance Nouns in Zero-Plural Context

  • Can you bring ∅ salts to the table?
  • ∅ Toothpastes come in tubes.
  • There are ∅ mustards for use over there.

Uncountable-Substance Nouns in Zero-Singular Context

  • People do not worry about ∅ salt in their food.
  • Did you use ∅ toothpaste this morning?
  • Do you like ∅ mustard on your sandwich?

T1: Immediate Post-Test Items

Countable Nouns in Definite-Plural Context

  • The dogs at my house often lay in the bed.
  • He put the windows together.
  • Would you like to plant the trees here or over there?

Countable Nouns in Definite-Singular Context

  • The dog likes to eat dinner at 6:00pm.
  • The window was open, letting in a very cool winter breeze.
  • I cannot believe the tree fell down during the rainstorm last night.

Countable Nouns in Indefinite Context

  • Many people think that a dog is a good starter pet.
  • A window would be beautiful there.
  • I saw a tree that was taller than the house.

Countable Nouns in Zero-Plural Context

  • ∅ Dogs play in the park every day.
  • We were in a large room surrounded by ∅ windows.
  • Have you seen ∅ trees that are tall and slender?

Countable Nouns in Zero-Singular Context

  • While I was at work, ∅ dog got into the garden.
  • There is ∅ window over by him.
  • There is beautiful ∅ tree in the park.

Flexible Nouns in Definite-Plural Context

  • They ordered the cakes for the party on Sunday.
  • The rocks were in a pile over there yesterday.
  • They have the papers for Wednesday.

Flexible Nouns in Definite-Singular Context

  • The cake is for tomorrow.
  • We were looking for the rock for our path.
  • She gets the paper on Sunday.

Flexible Nouns in Indefinite Context

  • We would like a cake for tomorrow, not Wednesday.
  • Have you seen a rock in the garden?
  • I have a paper that you need to use for your assignment.

Flexible Nouns in Zero-Plural Context

  • Do you know if we should order ∅ cakes for the party?
  • There were ∅ rocks on the sidewalk in front of the house.
  • ∅ Papers are always due on Monday, not Friday.

Flexible Nouns in Zero-Singular Context

  • Would you like ∅ cake for dessert?
  • I saw ∅ rock on the ground yesterday.
  • Do you have ∅ paper to bring to the office?

Uncountable-Object Nouns in Definite-Plural Context

  • Have you seen the luggages?
  • You will not get a mark if you do not complete the homeworks on time.
  • Please put the jewelries back in the box before your mother arrives.

Uncountable-Object Nouns in Definite-Singular Context

  • The man carried in the luggage without us even asking
  • Did you submit the homework on time?
  • I was looking for the jewelry when I found your brush.

Uncountable-Object Nouns in Indefinite Context

  • When I travel to Europe, I only take a luggage.
  • We have a homework due tomorrow.
  • Is there a jewelry you like very much?

Uncountable-Object Nouns in Zero-Plural Context

  • I have ∅ luggages to bring with me.
  • Although it is not allowed, they work together to finish ∅ homeworks.
  • Her ∅ jewelries are very expensive.

Uncountable-Object Nouns in Zero-Singular Context

  • Did you see it in your ∅ luggage when you left?
  • Many students do ∅ homework on the weekends.
  • She is wearing beautiful ∅ jewelry.

Uncountable-Substance Nouns in Definite-Plural Context

  • Where did you put the garlics that we purchased earlier?
  • There are the dirts that we bought earlier.
  • She is looking for the ketchups that are from her mother.

Uncountable-Substance Nouns in Definite-Singular Context

  • Have you seen the garlic that was on the table?
  • I was looking for the dirt when I found something else.
  • Could you pass the ketchup over here?

Uncountable-Substance Nouns in Indefinite Context

  • I need a garlic for the soup that I am making.
  • Do you have a dirt for the garden?
  • If you get a ketchup, can you please share with me?

Uncountable-Substance Nouns in Zero-Plural Context

  • I was looking for ∅ garlics to add to the dish.
  • I thought that you could buy ∅ dirts at the store.
  • Do you have ∅ ketchups for the food later?

Uncountable-Substance Nouns in Zero-Singular Context

  • Do you have ∅ garlic for the recipe?
  • We need ∅ dirt for the garden.
  • I asked for ∅ ketchup but I did not get any.

T2: Delayed Post-Test Items

Countable Nouns in Definite-Plural Context

  • Skye is friends with the girls who live down the street.
  • I cannot believe she let the cats come into the house like that.
  • The library said the computers were for everyone to use.

Countable Nouns in Definite-Singular Context

  • I was wondering if the girl had found her way to the bus or not.
  • He said the cat that was in the yard belongs to the neighbors.
  • Debbie said the computer on the desk is very big.

Countable Nouns in Indefinite Context

  • When I was on the bus, I saw a girl who looked like she was lost.
  • I have a cat that likes to play with all of the children.
  • I have a computer if you would like to borrow it.

Countable Nouns in Zero-Plural Context

  • I like ∅ girls and my brother does, too.
  • She likes to adopt ∅ cats from the animal shelter.
  • The school bought ∅ computers for every student in their final year.

Countable Nouns in Zero-Singular Context

  • I saw that there was ∅ girl in the park earlier.
  • I could not believe ∅ cat was in the kitchen.
  • They were looking for ∅ computer but they found something else.

Flexible Nouns in Definite-Plural Context

  • Where did you put the hamburgers that I cooked earlier?
  • Can you clean the glasses that are in the sink?
  • I tried the clean the hairs from the floor but it was nearly impossible.

Flexible Nouns in Definite-Singular Context

  • I think the hamburger tastes a little bad.
  • I want you to put the glass in the sink when you are done with it.
  • I like the hair that she has in this scene.

Flexible Nouns in Indefinite Context

  • Would you like to have a hamburger for dinner tonight?
  • Where is a glass that I can use for water?
  • Oh my, I just found a hair in my brownie that I got at the cafeteria.

Flexible Nouns in Zero-Plural Context

  • We should make ∅ hamburgers for dinner tonight!
  • I have ∅ glasses that can be used for water.
  • There are ∅ hairs on the floor that have fallen off of someone.

Flexible Nouns in Zero-Singular Context

  • Do you consider ∅ hamburger to be your meat of choice?
  • Why is there ∅ glass all over the floor in here?
  • I could not believe that there was ∅ hair on the table.

Uncountable-Object Nouns in Definite-Plural Context

  • She had said the fruits were for eating.
  • You said that you put the monies in a safe place.
  • Jeff told me the clothings on the couch were for someone else.

Uncountable-Object Nouns in Definite-Singular Context

  • You can have the fruit for your dessert.
  • Where is the money that I gave you for your birthday?
  • What do you think of the clothing that I bought for my trip?

Uncountable-Object Nouns in Indefinite Context

  • Do you have a fruit for your lunch?
  • There was a money on the floor earlier but somebody picked it up.
  • We saw a clothing on the couch earlier but put in on the table.

Uncountable-Object Nouns in Zero-Plural Context

  • There were ∅ fruits on the counter for you to take with you.
  • Did you put ∅ monies in the bank like I told you to?
  • I thought that you would be interested in ∅ clothings but I was wrong.

Uncountable-Object Nouns in Zero-Singular Context

  • Debbie said she likes to have ∅ fruit with her lunch.
  • Tanner does not have ∅ money to pay you back.
  • I was looking for ∅ clothing when I found the remote.

Uncountable-Substance Nouns in Definite-Plural Context

  • I like the rices that I get when I have Korean food.
  • I was looking for the cinnamons, but in the wrong place.
  • I think the ices will be melted by the time we arrive.

Uncountable-Substance Nouns in Definite-Singular Context

  • Did you get the rice for the recipe?
  • Can you believe the cinnamon was not properly added to the recipe?
  • I like that the ice is already in the cup.

Uncountable-Substance Nouns in Indefinite Context

  • There seemed to be a rice on the plate.
  • Johnathan asked for a cinnamon to be added to his coffee.
  • Do you have an ice for my drink that is outside?

Uncountable-Substance Nouns in Zero-Plural Context

  • They often use ∅ rices to stuff the peppers and make dinner.
  • There are not many people who like ∅ cinnamons in their hot cocoa.
  • We will need ∅ ices for the guests that are coming to our house.

Uncountable-Substance Nouns in Zero-Singular Context

  • She likes to use ∅ rice instead of stuffing.
  • There is an abundance of ∅ cinnamon in the cupboard.
  • I would like ∅ ice in my coffee, please.

Appendix C: Linguistically-Informed Instruction Materials

Presentation

Student Materials & Workbook

Research-Project-Day-2-Materials_CHINESE


Appendix D: Traditional Instruction Materials

Presentation

Textbook Materials

Grammar-Beyond-4_Articlers_Textbook

Workbook Materials

Grammar-Beyond-4_Articles_Workbook